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National Standards can be classified based on whether they are conceptual, rule based or value based:
- Principles - The defining characteristic of a principle document is that it is conceptual. It describes a target state or end goal without specifying how it will be achieved.
- Guidance/Policies/Standards - The defining characteristic of guidance, policies and standards are that they are rule based. The document specifies the rules to be applied to achieve a particular state.
- Technical Reference Templates - The defining characteristic of a template is that it is value based. It specifies exactly the values that must be used.
National Standards graded 4Pol are standards which meet the below criteria and should be considered first, before any other standard in that category, as they fit the National Policing Digital Strategy allowing forces and suppliers to converge on a single set of standards.
- Support minimum legal requirements where they exist
- Align with the National Policing Digital Strategy to ensure strategic alignment and design
- Align with the TechUK Justice & Emergency Services Interoperability Charter to deliver better data sharing, exchanging and exploitation
- Direct relevance and applicability to policing
- Represent best practice
- Able to be measured and achieved within the unique landscape of policing
National Standards graded MLR stem directly from legislative requirements, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) standards. These are National Standards which represent the minimum requirements to ensure that data and technology in use is operated in a lawfully compliant manner. These should be considered the baseline in applicable categories.
National Standards are divided into broad categories based on their focus. To recognise there is no clear dividing line, some National Standards may possess two categories, but the selected category reflects the primary focus of the National Standard:
- Analytics - Digital systems capable of creating actionable information from structured or unstructured data
- Asset Management - The way in which IT assets are acquired, used and disposed of
- Incident, Crime and Records Management Systems
- Digital systems used to manage policing and corporate records
- Cloud - Remote, off-premises computer system resources which host a range of functions across a potentially wide range of distributed sites
- Data - Information held in a structured or unstructured digital format
- Devices - Physical devices capable of viewing, changing, creating, distributing or storing digital information
- Digital Media - Media stored in an electronic format from any source
- Enterprise Resource Planning - Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the management of integrated business processes via a software solution
- Forensics - The use of investigative technology and methodology to gather intelligence and admissible evidence
- Intelligence Systems - Digital system used to view, change, create, distribute or store sensitive digital information
- Justice - Systems, technologies and methodologies used within the Criminal Justice System
- Mobility - Software specifically designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone, tablet or watch
- Office Productivity & Collaboration Systems - Software specifically designed to address specific business needs such as communication, collaboration, document creation and content management
- Operational Policing - Specialist operational policing functions
- Security - The technology and methodology used in the protection of digital assets and services
The role of the forensic science regulator is to advise the Government and the criminal justice system on quality standards in the provision of forensic science. Recommend new requirements for new and improved standards and providing advice and guidance so that providers will be able to demonstrate compliance with common standards, in procurement and in courts
A key requirement of any standards framework in forensic science is that the output meets the requirements of the Criminal Justice System (CJS). This document sets out the view of the Regulator as to the legal landscape within which forensic scientists operate within the CJS.
There are legal obligations placed on expert witnesses as sources in the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales as Expert evidence is admissible “to furnish the court with scientific information which is likely to be outside the experience and the knowledge of a judge or jury”. This places the expert witness in a privileged position.
It is important to note that expert evidence can only be given by a person who is an expert in the relevant field. An expert witness must provide the court with objective, unbiased opinion on matters within his expertise Witnesses must act with honesty and good faith.
Police engagement and communication is key to the success of community policing and having an effective presence in the area the police serves in. Developing and maintaining healthy and positive relationships with community leaders and the wider public is crucial for establishing engagement. Without this being able to prevent, detect or investigate and solve crime may become much more difficult, as well as bringing offenders to justice. It will reduce confidence and public image in the Police service as service to the public may become unworkable. There it is important that both the public and Police service both cooperate and be in intentional about developing strong relations.
It is important to the local police that communities have confidence and trust in the Police Service in order for the Police to carry out their duties effectively and to keep communities safe. Both parties play an essential role in the world of policing.
This document sets out the principles of engagement and communication, including public relations.
Asset Disposal & Information Security Alliance (ADISA) is an organisation designed to improve risk management and data protection within business processes for IT asset retirement and disposal.
The ADISA ICT Asset Recovery Standard 7.0 is an updated version released in January 2020 from its first launch from its first launch in 2010. It better aligns to the updates and amendments of the Data Protection legislation including but not limited to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, the UK Data Protection Act and the Californian Consumer Privacy Act 2018.
This area covers asset management and data sanitisation. The ADISA ICT Asset Recovery Standard was developed to identify risk which might exist within this process and to then assess countermeasures which are in place to mitigate that risk.
The objective of the ADISA Asset Recovery Standard is to ensure that every data bearing asset is managed throughout the process and that any resident data is sanitised in accordance with the client’s requirements or to industry best practice levels, to promote the re-use of assets through risk management and to help organisations comply with Data Protection Laws.
These are achieved by creating a physical environment within the ITAD process which offers equivalent levels of security to those in place when the asset is in its live environment, testing the abilities of the service provider to create and then maintain the chain of custody throughout the process, ensuring the process is consistent and repeatable, assessing current data sanitisation processes on ALL media types.
The Standard is presented in 10 Modules each covering different aspects in asset recovery and contain mandatory requirements.
There are current plans for version 8 of this document.
European Pool against Organised Crime (EPOC IV) was introduced in 2004 as the Eurojust Case Management System. It facilitates the secure storage of case-related personal data, the exchange of information amongst National Members and the analysis of that data.
EPOC also provides a set of tools to facilitate interoperability of national systems and can be used as a component to support international cooperation in national systems.
Reference Dataset consists of:
EU EPOC Country (Bulgarian)
EU EPOC Country (English)
EU EPOC Country (French)
EU EPOC Country (Lithuanian)
EU EPOC Country (Slovene)
EU EPOC Crime Type (Bulgarian)
EU EPOC Crime Type (English)
EU EPOC Crime Type (French)
EU EPOC Crime Type (Lithuanian)
EU EPOC Crime Type (Slovene)
EU EPOC Currency Type (English)
EU EPOC Currency Type (Lithuanian)
EU EPOC Drug Code (English and Other Languages) L1 (English)
EU EPOC Drug Code (English and Other Languages) L2 (Other Languages)
EU EPOC Drug Code (Lithuanian)
Home Office Drug Codes L2 (Description)
ISO 3166-1 Country Codes 2 Char
An investigation is undertaken when a crime has been reported and a police officer investigates the circumstance following all lines of enquiry of the situation to determine if a crime has been conducted and where a person/s should be charged with an offence, or if the person who offended is guilty.
Under the Home Office counting rules, when members of the public are making a complaint, victims should be believed for the matter of recording a crime unless it's clear that the incident did not happen. An investigators duty is to gather and test all material presented including witness accounts/statements and use technical and scientific expertise to maximise evidential opportunity.
The following outcomes may be that the suspect is prosecuted in court, receives an out of court disposal, community resolution or charges dropped. A lot of the times investigators may not find enough evidential material to make a charging decision either as a result of lack of evidence or not enough lines of enquiry to pursue. However the investigation outcome must still be recorded accurately for intelligence purposes and especially for future use, as this will help police identify crime hotspots and help reduce crime rates.
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) and the associated Codes of Practice set out the legislation and standards for dealing with people who come into contact with the police. Whilst members of the public are detained in custody, officers and staff should treat them in a way that is dignified and takes account of their human rights and individual needs. The Police force are only allowed to use force within a custody suite which is deemed necessary, proportionate and lawful and must be recorded by officers who have undergone appropriate and adequate training.
The PACE covers the following:
When an officer makes an arrest, they are personally responsible for the risk assessment and welfare of the detained person. This responsibility continues until the suspect is handed over to the custody officer for a decision regarding detention. For a member of the public to be detained at a police station the following must be addressed and considered by the Custody officer:
the grounds for detention
whether to grant bail
whether to authorise or refuse detention
It is possible for an individual arrested not to be detained if the custody officer believes that there are insufficient grounds for detention. The reasons must be and the detainee must be released.
There are occasions that require the use of firearms by Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs) in conflict situations. This response is a well-established and necessary approach to managing conflict. Commanders and AFOs are trained to analyse and determine appropriate courses of action in the course of armed deployments.
Police officers have a positive duty to protect the public from harm – a duty of care to all involved must be the overriding consideration. Police decision-making and response is vital in such situations and thus the National Decision model (NDM) is used to assist with the decision-making process.
The Authorised Professional Practice for Armed Policing covers guidance on the appropriate use of firearms within the police force. It also acts as a basis for training police officers in matters relating to the operational use of firearms.
The also provides guidance on structural command, tactical options and operational challenges with the deployment of Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs).
Undercover policing is a covert tactic used by the Police to obtain evidence and intelligence. It is also used to detect crime and disorder and help maintain public safety.
Undercover policing is a lawful and ethical tactic and when applied rightly can be very effective tool. In order to ensure it is kept this way, Authorised Professional Practice (APP) has been developed and used by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) across the United Kingdom.
There is an undercover accreditation process that has been developed to provide an assessment of whether the management and governance of undercover units are effective in supporting safe, ethical and lawful undercover operations.
Undercover operatives (UCOs) are deployed as covert human intelligence sources (CHIS) in authorised investigations. There are three different types of UCOs, Undercover foundation(UCFs), Undercover advanced operatives (UCAs) AND Undercover online operatives (UCOLs). All must go through vigorous training and go through a robust selection process.
Police have a duty to respond to every incident reported in an appropriate way and in a timely manner. A critical incident (CI) is defined as:
any incident where the effectiveness of the police response is likely to have a significant impact on the confidence of the victim, their family and/or the community. An incident can be escalated to a CI when the police fail to meet the expectation of a victim/family and/or the community in responding to an incident.
Therefore critical incident management (CIM) is key within the police force. Different types of incidents can become critical, high profile, serious or homicide related. If the police do not respond in a timely manner to serious incidents it can result in loss of confidence by the public.
There are 3 stages to CIM:
Preparing for critical incidents – considering current management structures to ensure staff are trained effectively and resources are available
Managing critical incidents – identifying critical incidents early on and notified to the most appropriate person.
Restoring public confidence – restoring broken confidence amongst the public by community engagement, resolution and public inquiry.
Decision-making in the Police service can be very complex. Police officers most often have to make decisions in very difficult circumstances and situations and may not have all the necessary or complete information to hand. It is also very important to note that the role that police officers play and the environment where they have to make decisions can be very complicated. Police officers and police staff are sometimes required to make decisions in circumstances where those involved deliberately mislead or try to mislead them. As a result it may not always lead to the best outcome.
Therefore to create a framework that could allow officers to base their decisions on, and allow for examination of each decision and allow for some form of standardisation in decision making the National Decision Model (NDM) was created.
At the heart of the NDM, the Code of Ethics highlighted is essential for all decision making. This gives confidence for police officers to use the NDM and reduces risk. Decision makers will be supported by their organisation where it can be shown that their decision was assessed by the NDM and the circumstances at the time, even when harm has resulted as part of the decision making process.